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It was mostly flat, or so it seemed from the few aerial photographs and old maps, and the Japanese garrison there could be cut off from support and resupply by the U. What American planners did not know, however, would create a cascade of problems once the Marines hit the beaches. Fully one third of Marines committed were killed, wounded, or listed as missing.

How could the invasion have gone so wrong? Since Guadalcanal, Americans had perfected their amphibious landing tactics. Despite stiff Japanese resistance, island invasions had become almost routine in their development and resolution by the summer of Japanese defensive tactics had shifted. In short, the Japanese recalibrated their defensive model, digging miles of tunnels in the mountains on Peleliu — terrain features that were hidden by dense foliage and unknown to American forces.

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Instead of defending the beaches, they would cede them to the Marines, who once ashore would be exposed to withering, sustained attacks from hidden bunkers, tanks, infantry, and hundreds of mortars and guns hidden in a honeycomb of caves overlooking the beaches and airfield. The Japanese accepted that they would lose these islands; however, they would not do so before demanding a terrible price from the American invaders.

Thus, when the 1st Marine Division landed, instead of capturing the island within days, they discovered rugged terrain beyond anything they had anticipated, an enemy that had been barely harmed by the pre-invasion naval and air attacks, and a new and unexpected defensive plan. However, a rifle platoon began knocking out the Japanese gun positions one by one. Using smoke grenades for cover, they swept through each hole, destroying the positions with rifle grenades and close-quarters combat.

After knocking out the six machine gun positions, the Marines faced the 47mm gun cave. Hahn to launch a grenade through the cave's aperture. A fire team was positioned on the flank of the cave where the former occupants were shot down. K Company had captured The Point, but Nakagawa counterattacked.

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The next 30 hours saw four major counterattacks against a sole company, critically low on supplies , out of water, and surrounded. The Marines soon had to resort to hand-to-hand combat and attrition warfare to fend off the Japanese attackers. By the time reinforcements arrived, the company had successfully repulsed all Japanese attacks, but had been reduced to 18 men, suffering casualties during the battle for The Point. Hunt and Hahn were both rewarded the Navy Cross for their actions.

The 5th Marines—after having secured the airfield—were sent to capture Ngesebus Island present day Ngedbus , just north of Peleliu. Ngesebus was occupied by many Japanese artillery positions, and was the site of an airfield still under construction. The tiny island was connected to Peleliu by a small causeway, but 5th Marines commander Harris opted instead to make a shore-to-shore amphibious landing, predicting the causeway to be an obvious target for the island's defenders. Unlike the Navy's bombardment of Peleliu, Harris' assault on Ngesebus successfully killed most of the Japanese defenders.

The Marines still faced opposition in the ridges and caves, but the island fell quickly, with relatively light casualties for the 5th Marines. They had suffered 15 killed and 33 wounded, and inflicted casualties on the Japanese. Marines waiting in their foxholes. Puller led his men in numerous assaults, but every one brought on severe casualties by the Japanese. The 1st Marines were trapped within the narrow paths between the ridges, with each ridge fortification supporting the other with deadly crossfire.

The Marines took increasingly high casualties as they slowly advanced through the ridges. The Japanese again showed unusual fire discipline, striking only when they could inflict maximum casualties. As casualties mounted, Japanese snipers began to take aim at stretcher bearers, knowing that if two stretcher bearers were injured or killed, more would have to return to replace them, and the snipers could steadily pick off more and more Marines.

In place of their banzai attacks, the Japanese infiltrated the American lines at night to attack the Marines in their foxholes. The Marines built two-man foxholes, so one could sleep while the other kept watch for infiltrators. Captain Everett Pope and his company penetrated deep into the ridges, leading his remaining 90 men to seize what he thought was Hill It took a day fighting to reach what he thought was the crest of the hill, which was in fact another ridge, occupied by more Japanese defenders. Trapped at the base of the ridge, Pope set up a small defense perimeter, which was attacked relentlessly by the Japanese throughout the night.

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The Marines soon ran out of ammunition, and had to fight the attackers with knives and fists, even resorting to throwing coral rock and empty ammunition boxes at the Japanese. Pope and his men managed to hold out until dawn which brought on more deadly fire. When they evacuated the position, only nine men remained. Pope later received the Medal of Honor for the action.

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Douglas Lightheart right cradles his. Gerald Thursby Sr. The st Regiment Combat Team landed on the western beaches of Peleliu—at the northern end of Umurbrogol mountain—on 23 September. The st Regiment, 5th, and then 7th Marines took turns attacking the Umurbrogol, and all suffered similar casualties. By mid-October, the 5th and 7th Marines both lost around half their men while clawing their way through the ridges.

Geiger then decided to evacuate the entire 1st Marine Division, to be replaced by more 81st troops. The rd Regimental Combat Team landed on 15 October, and by the third week of October, almost all of the Marines had been evacuated back to Pavuvu. The Army troops battled the remaining Japanese on Bloody Nose Ridge for another month before securing the island. On 24 November, Nakagawa proclaimed "Our sword is broken and we have run out of spears".

He then burnt his regimental colors and performed ritual suicide. He was posthumously promoted to lieutenant general for his valor displayed on Peleliu. On 27 November, the island was declared secure, ending the day long battle. A Japanese lieutenant with his 26 2nd Infantry soldiers and eight 45th Guard Force sailors held out in the caves in Peleliu until April 22, and surrendered after a Japanese admiral convinced them the war was over. Marines in a hospital on Guadalcanal after being wounded in the Battle of Peleliu.

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The reduction of the Japanese pocket around Umurbrogol mountain is considered [5] to be the most difficult fight that the U. The 1st Marine Division was severely mauled and it remained out of action until the invasion of Okinawa on 1 April The 81st Infantry Division suffered nearly 3, casualties during their tenure on the island. The battle was controversial due to the island's lack of strategic value.

The airfield captured on Peleliu was of little use for the attack on the Philippines.

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The island was never used for a staging operation in subsequent invasions; the Ulithi Atoll , in the Caroline Islands north of the Palaus, was used as a staging base for the invasion of Okinawa. In addition, few news reports were made on the battle. Due to Rupertus' "3 days" prediction, only six reporters bothered coming ashore. The battles for Angaur and Peleliu showed Americans the pattern of future Japanese island defense which would be seen again at Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

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On the recommendation of Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr. Robert Leckie.

The forgotten corner of hell

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