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Items can be submitted either by individual authors, or by journals for articles or by publishers for books and edited collections. Mirollo describes how "bella maniera" poets attempted to surpass in virtuosity the sonnets of Petrarch. In essence, "bella maniera" utilized the best from a number of source materials, synthesizing it into something new. As a stylistic label, "Mannerism" is not easily defined.
It was used by Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt and popularized by German art historians in the early 20th century to categorize the seemingly uncategorizable art of the Italian 16th century — art that was no longer found to exhibit the harmonious and rational approaches associated with the High Renaissance. However, for later writers, such as the 17th-century Gian Pietro Bellori, "la maniera" was a derogatory term for the perceived decline of art after Raphael, especially in the s and s.
Yet historians differ as to whether Mannerism is a style, a movement, or a period; and while the term remains controversial it is still commonly used to identify European art and culture of the 16th century. By the end of the High Renaissance, young artists experienced a crisis:  it seemed that everything that could be achieved was already achieved. No more difficulties, technical or otherwise, remained to be solved. The detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, physiognomy and the way in which humans register emotion in expression and gesture, the innovative use of the human form in figurative composition, the use of the subtle gradation of tone, all had reached near perfection.
The young artists needed to find a new goal, and they sought new approaches. This period has been described as a "natural extension"  of the art of Andrea del Sarto , Michelangelo, and Raphael. Michelangelo developed his own style at an early age, a deeply original one which was greatly admired at first, then often copied and imitated by other artists of the era. His Sistine Chapel ceiling provided examples for them to follow, in particular his representation of collected figures often called ignudi and of the Libyan Sibyl , his vestibule to the Laurentian Library , the figures on his Medici tombs, and above all his Last Judgment.
The later Michelangelo was one of the great role models of Mannerism. The competitive spirit was cultivated by patrons who encouraged sponsored artists to emphasize virtuosic technique and to compete with one another for commissions. It drove artists to look for new approaches and dramatically illuminated scenes, elaborate clothes and compositions, elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and a lack of clear perspective.
These two artists were set to paint side by side and compete against each other, fueling the incentive to be as innovative as possible. The early Mannerists in Florence—especially the students of Andrea del Sarto such as Jacopo da Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino who are notable for elongated forms, precariously balanced poses, a collapsed perspective, irrational settings, and theatrical lighting. Parmigianino a student of Correggio and Giulio Romano Raphael's head assistant were moving in similarly stylized aesthetic directions in Rome.
These artists had matured under the influence of the High Renaissance, and their style has been characterized as a reaction to or exaggerated extension of it. Instead of studying nature directly, younger artists began studying Hellenistic sculpture and paintings of masters past. The earliest experimental phase of Mannerism, known for its "anti-classical" forms, lasted until about or Hall, professor of art history at Temple University, notes in her book After Raphael that Raphael's premature death marked the beginning of Mannerism in Rome.
In past analyses, it has been noted that mannerism arose in the early 16th century contemporaneously with a number of other social, scientific, religious and political movements such as the Copernican model , the Sack of Rome , and the Protestant Reformation 's increasing challenge to the power of the Catholic Church. Because of this, the style's elongated forms and distorted forms were once interpreted as a reaction to the idealized compositions prevalent in High Renaissance art.
The second period of Mannerism is commonly differentiated [ citation needed ] from the earlier, so-called "anti-classical" phase. Subsequent mannerists stressed intellectual conceits and artistic virtuosity, features that have led later critics to accuse them of working in an unnatural and affected "manner" maniera. Maniera artists looked to their older contemporary Michelangelo as their principal model; theirs was an art imitating art, rather than an art imitating nature.
Art historian Sydney Joseph Freedberg argues that the intellectualizing aspect of maniera art involves expecting its audience to notice and appreciate this visual reference—a familiar figure in an unfamiliar setting enclosed between "unseen, but felt, quotation marks". Agnolo Bronzino and Giorgio Vasari exemplify this strain of Maniera that lasted from about to Based largely at courts and in intellectual circles around Europe, Maniera art couples exaggerated elegance with exquisite attention to surface and detail: porcelain-skinned figures recline in an even, tempered light, acknowledging the viewer with a cool glance, if they make eye contact at all.
Dr Belen Vidal
The Maniera subject rarely displays much emotion, and for this reason works exemplifying this trend are often called 'cold' or 'aloof. Venetian painting pursued a different course, represented by Titian in his long career. A number of the earliest Mannerist artists who had been working in Rome during the s fled the city after the Sack of Rome in As they spread out across the continent in search of employment, their style was disseminated throughout Italy and Northern Europe.
European rulers, among others, purchased Italian works, while northern European artists continued to travel to Italy, helping to spread the Mannerist style. Individual Italian artists working in the North gave birth to a movement known as the Northern Mannerism. The style waned in Italy after , as a new generation of artists, including the Carracci brothers, Caravaggio and Cigoli , revived naturalism.
Walter Friedlaender identified this period as "anti-mannerism", just as the early mannerists were "anti-classical" in their reaction away from the aesthetic values of the High Renaissance  and today the Carracci brothers and Caravaggio are agreed to have begun the transition to Baroque-style painting which was dominant by Outside of Italy, however, Mannerism continued into the 17th century.
In France, where Rosso traveled to work for the court at Fontainebleau , it is known as the " Henry II style " and had a particular impact on architecture. Mannerism as a stylistic category is less frequently applied to English visual and decorative arts, where native labels such as " Elizabethan " and " Jacobean " are more commonly applied.
Seventeenth-century Artisan Mannerism is one exception, applied to architecture that relies on pattern books rather than on existing precedents in Continental Europe. Of particular note is the Flemish influence at Fontainebleau that combined the eroticism of the French style with an early version of the vanitas tradition that would dominate seventeenth-century Dutch and Flemish painting.
Prevalent at this time was the "pittore vago," a description of painters from the north who entered the workshops in France and Italy to create a truly international style. As in painting, early Italian Mannerist sculpture was very largely an attempt to find an original style that would top the achievement of the High Renaissance , which in sculpture essentially meant Michelangelo, and much of the struggle to achieve this was played out in commissions to fill other places in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, next to Michelangelo 's David.
Baccio Bandinelli took over the project of Hercules and Cacus from the master himself, but it was little more popular then than it is now, and maliciously compared by Benvenuto Cellini to "a sack of melons", though it had a long-lasting effect in apparently introducing relief panels on the pedestal of statues.
Like other works of his and other Mannerists it removes far more of the original block than Michelangelo would have done. Small bronze figures for collector's cabinets , often mythological subjects with nudes, were a popular Renaissance form at which Giambologna , originally Flemish but based in Florence, excelled in the later part of the century.
He also created life-size sculptures, of which two entered the collection in the Piazza della Signoria. He and his followers devised elegant elongated examples of the figura serpentinata , often of two intertwined figures, that were interesting from all angles.
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Stucco overdoor at Fontainebleau , probably designed by Primaticcio , who painted the oval inset, s or s. Benvenuto Cellini, Perseus with the head of Medusa , — Giambologna , Samson Slaying a Philistine , about Venus , c. Giorgio Vasari 's opinions about the art of painting emerge in the praise he bestows on fellow artists in his multi-volume Lives of the Artists : he believed that excellence in painting demanded refinement, richness of invention invenzione , expressed through virtuoso technique maniera , and wit and study that appeared in the finished work, all criteria that emphasized the artist's intellect and the patron's sensibility.
The artist was now no longer just a trained member of a local Guild of St Luke. Now he took his place at court alongside scholars, poets, and humanists, in a climate that fostered an appreciation for elegance and complexity. The coat-of-arms of Vasari's Medici patrons appears at the top of his portrait, quite as if it were the artist's own. The framing of the woodcut image of Vasari 's Lives of the Artists would be called " Jacobean " in an English-speaking milieu.
In it, Michelangelo's Medici tombs inspire the anti-architectural "architectural" features at the top, the papery pierced frame, the satyr nudes at the base. As a mere frame it is extravagant: Mannerist, in short.
Another literary figure from the period is Gian Paolo Lomazzo , who produced two works—one practical and one metaphysical—that helped define the Mannerist artist's self-conscious relation to his art. His Trattato dell'arte della pittura, scoltura et architettura Milan, is in part a guide to contemporary concepts of decorum , which the Renaissance inherited in part from Antiquity but Mannerism elaborated upon. Lomazzo's systematic codification of aesthetics, which typifies the more formalized and academic approaches typical of the later 16th century, emphasized a consonance between the functions of interiors and the kinds of painted and sculpted decors that would be suitable.
Iconography, often convoluted and abstruse, is a more prominent element in the Mannerist styles. His less practical and more metaphysical Idea del tempio della pittura The ideal temple of painting , Milan, offers a description along the lines of the "four temperaments" theory of human nature and personality, defining the role of individuality in judgment and artistic invention. Mannerism was an anti-classical movement which differed greatly from the aesthetic ideologies of the Renaissance.
Below is a list of many specific characteristics that Mannerist artists would employ in their artworks. Jacopo Pontormo's work has been known as some of the most important contributions to Mannerism. Pontomoro's Joseph in Egypt , painted in ,  portrays a running narrative of four Biblical scenes in which Joseph reconnects with his family.
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On the left side of the composition , Pontomoro depicts a scene of Joseph introducing his family to the pharaoh of Egypt. On the right, Joseph is riding on a rolling bench, as cherubs fill the composition around him in addition to other figures and large rocks on a path in the distance. Above these scenes, is a spiral staircase which Joseph guides one his sons to their mother at the top.
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The final scene, on the right, is the final stage of Jacob's death as his sons watch nearby. Jacopo da Pontormo 's Joseph in Egypt features many Mannerist elements. One element is utilization of incongruous colors such as various shades of pinks and blues which make up a majority of the canvas. An additional element of Mannerism is the incoherent handling of time about the story of Joseph through various scenes and use of space. Through the inclusion of the four different narratives, Ponotormo creates a cluttered composition and overall sense of busyness.
Rosso Fiorentino , who had been a fellow pupil of Pontormo in the studio of Andrea del Sarto , in brought Florentine mannerism to Fontainebleau , where he became one of the founders of French 16th-century Mannerism, popularly known as the " School of Fontainebleau ". The examples of a rich and hectic decorative style at Fontainebleau further disseminated the Italian style through the medium of engravings , to Antwerp and from there throughout Northern Europe from London to Poland.
Mannerist design was extended to luxury goods like silver and carved furniture. A sense of tense, controlled emotion expressed in elaborate symbolism and allegory , and an ideal of female beauty characterized by elongated proportions are features of this style. Angolo Bronzino was a pupil of Pontormo,  whose style was very influential and often confusing in terms of figuring out the attribution of many artworks.
In the painting, Allegory of Venus, Cupid , Folly and Time , Bronzino portrays an erotic scene that leaves the viewer with more questions than answers.
Figuring the Past: Period Film and the Mannerist Aesthetic - Belén Vidal - Google книги
In the foreground, Cupid and Venus are nearly engaged in a kiss , but pause as if caught in the act. Above the pair, are mythological figures, Father Time on the right, who pulls a curtain to reveal the pair and the representation of the Goddess of night on the left.
The composition also involves a grouping of masks, a hybrid creature composed of features of a girl and a serpent, and a man depicted in agonizing pain. Many theories are available for the painting, such as it conveying the dangers of syphilis , or that the painting functioned as a court game. Mannerist portraits by Agnolo Bronzino are distinguished by a serene elegance and meticulous attention to detail. As a result, Bronzino's sitters have been said to project an aloofness and marked emotional distance from the viewer. There is also a virtuosic concentration on capturing the precise pattern and sheen of rich textiles.
Figuring the Past : Period Film and the Mannerist Aesthetic
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