Manual Cell Surface and Extracellular Glycoconjugates. Structure and Function

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The main function of glycolipids in the body is to serve as recognition sites for cell—cell interactions. The saccharide of the glycolipid will bind to a specific complementary carbohydrate or to a lectin carbohydrate-binding protein , of a neighboring cell. The interaction of these cell surface markers is the basis of cell recognitions, and initiates cellular responses that contribute to activities such as regulation, growth, and apoptosis. An example of how glycolipids function within the body is the interaction between leukocytes and endothelial cells during inflammation.

Selectins , a class of lectins found on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells bind to the carbohydrates attached to glycolipids to initiate the immune response. This binding causes leukocytes to leave circulation and congregate near the site of inflammation. This is the initial binding mechanism, which is followed by the expression of integrins which form stronger bonds and allow leukocytes to migrate toward the site of inflammation. Blood types are an example of how glycolipids on cell membranes mediate cell interactions with the surrounding environment.

The four main human blood types A, B, AB, O are determined by the oligosaccharide attached to a specific glycolipid on the surface of red blood cells , which acts as an antigen. The unmodified antigen, called the H antigen, is the characteristic of type O, and is present on red blood cells of all blood types.

Glycobiology in the 20th Century: Chemistry

Blood type A has an N-acetylgalactosamine added as the main determining structure, type B has a galactose , and type AB has all three of these antigens. Antigens which are not present in an individual's blood will cause antibodies to be produced, which will bind to the foreign glycolipids.

For this reason, people with blood type AB can receive transfusions from all blood types the universal acceptor , and people with blood type O can act as donors to all blood types the universal donor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Lipopolysaccharide.

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved 1 November Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Chemical Reviews. Not to be confused with peptidoglycan , proteoglycan , or glycopeptide. Journal of Cell Science.

Cell Surface and Extracellular Glycoconjugates

FEBS Letters. Murray, Daryl K. Rodwell: "Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry 27th Ed. Cell Reports. Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo Current Opinion in Virology. J Autoimmun. Bibcode : Sci Protein , glycoconjugate : glycoproteins and glycopeptides. Decorin Biglycan Versican. Testican Perlecan.

Fibromodulin Lumican Keratocan. Syndecan 1. Dolichol kinase GCS1 Oligosaccharyltransferase. N-acetylglucosaminephosphate transferase. Lysosomal storage diseases : Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism Glycoproteinoses E77 , Dolichol kinase deficiency Congenital disorder of glycosylation.

Aspartylglucosaminuria Fucosidosis mannosidosis Alpha-mannosidosis Beta-mannosidosis Sialidosis Schindler disease. Biology portal. Categories : Glycoproteins Carbohydrate chemistry. Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from April All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from December Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Annu Rev Biochem. Bertozzi CR, Rabuka D. Structural basis of glycan diversity. Essentials of glycobiology. Proteoglycans: structure, synthesis, function. Bhavanandan VP, Furukawa K.

Glycoprotein

Biochemistry and oncology of sialoglycoproteins. In: Rosenberg A, editor. Biology of the sialic acids. New York: Plenum Press; Heparan sulfate proteoglycans fine-tune mammalian physiology.

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O -Glycans. Functional and Molecular Glycobiology. Bruses JL, Rutishauser U. Polysialic acid in neural cell development: roles, regulation and mechanism. In: Fukuda M, Hindsgaul O, editors. Molecular and Cellular Glycobiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Buddecke E. In: Gabius H-J, editor. The sugar code: fundamentals of glycosciences.

Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; High prevalence of 2-mono- and 2,6-di-substituted manol-terminating sequences among O-glycans released from brain glycopeptides by reductive alkaline hydrolysis. Eur J Biochem. Cell surface biology mediated by low affinity multivalent protein-glycan interactions. Curr Opin Chem Biol.


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Glycolipid - Wikipedia

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